"All resources will be used to make the army ready for war." - Napoleon, 1813


Befreiungskriege National Monument

December, 1812

30th -  Generalleutenant Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg signs Convention of Tauroggen with the Russians by which his Prussian Corps defects from the French Grande Armee.

 Prussian General Yorck and Russian General von Diebitsch sign the Convention of Tauroggen.

January, 1813

Marshal Murat
1st - Entrusted by Napoleon with command of the remnants of the Grande Armee, Marshal Joachim Murat leaves Koenigsberg abandoning his troops.

4th - French evacuate Koenigsberg and retreat to the Vistula.  Tzar Alexander resolves to continue the war into Poland and Germany.

Tzar Alexander I
8th - GL Yorck occupies Koenigsberg.

11th - A French Senatus consultum mobilizes 350,000 men: 100,000 men from classes 1809 to 1812; 150,000 men from class 1813 and 100,000 men from the National Guard.

12th - Russians cross the river Niemen.

16th - Russians besiege Danzig.
Klemens von Metternich

19th - Napoleon has an interview with Pope Pius VII at Fontainebleau.

24th - Metternich informs Napoleon that Austria is withdrawing from its alliance with France.

25th -  A new Concordat is signed at Fontainebleau.

26th - Joachim Murat is received by Napoleon and accused of abandoning his army.


1st - The Count of Provence publishes a message to the French people from his residence of Hartwell, England.

King Frederick William III
3rd - King Frederick William III authorises enlistment of volunteers.

5th - A Senatus consultum organizes regency.

5th - East Prussian estates decree formation of a landwehr.

10th - The King of Prussia orders a mass conscription in his entire kingdom.

18th - Russians enter Warsaw.

26th - Russia and Prussia sign secret treaty of alliance at Kalisch.


1st - French abandon the line of the Oder, leaving garrisons in Stettin, Küstrin, Glogau, and Spandau.

Emperor Napoleon
1st - The King of Prussia signs a treaty of alliance with Russia.

4th - The Russians enter Berlin.

11th - The Count of Provence reminds his rights to the throne in a manifesto.

12th - French evacuate Hamburg.

17th - Prussian declares war on France.  The French evacuate Dresden.  French abandon the line of the upper Elbe and fall back towards the Saale.

22nd - Russians enter Dresden.

Empress Marie-Louise
23rd - Napoleon notifies the Legislature he will take command of the army.

24th - Pope Pius VII retracts and denounces the Concordat of Fontainebleau.

29th - Russia and Austria sign a secret pact.

30th - Establishment of a Regency Council: Empress Marie-Louise becomes regent and Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès is appointed privy councilor.

31st - Russians enter Leipzig.


Marshal Bessières
3rd - A Senatus consultum mobilizes 180,000 additional troops.

15th - Napoleon departs for the army.

25th - Arrival of the Emperor in Erfurt, where he assumes command.


1st - Death of Marshal Bessières, Duke of Istria.

2nd - Battle of Lützen

Battle of Lützen

8th - Napoleon enters the city of Dresden, which has been abandoned by the allied sovereigns.

10th - With Napoleon present, the army crosses the river Elbe.

Battle of Bautzen

Marshal Davout
21st - Battle of Bautzen

26th -  Battle of Haynau

27th - The Allies retreat towards Breslau.

29th - Marshal Davout resumes Hamburg.


4th - An armistice for two months is signed at Pläswitz.

6th - Battle of Luckau

14th - Great Britain and Prussia sign the Treaty of Reichenbach, the first gives the latter a subsidy of 666,660 pounds sterling to continue the war.

15th - Great Britain gives Russia 1,333,334 pounds to continue the war.

29th - The command of the Prussian army is entrusted to General der Kavalrie Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.

General Blucher at Bautzen


10th - Napoleon, anticipating the resumption of hostilities, is celebrating his birthday in advance at Dresden.  The King and the princes of Saxony attend a parade which gathers forty thousand men.

Battle of Grossbeeren

11th - Denunciation of the armistice. Austrians and Prussians join up.

12th - Austria receives 500,000 pounds from Great Britain and declares war on France.

Battle of Katzbach
General Moreau

14th - Blücher initiates the hostilities.

17th - Armistice of Pläswitz ends.  (See blog post)

23rd - Battle of Grossbeeren.  (See blog post)

26th -  Battle of Katzbach.  (See blog post)

26th - Battle of Dresden begins.  (See blog post)

Battle of Dresden

27th - The Battle of Dresden continues. General Jean Victor Marie Moreau, who had joined the Russian ranks, is mortally wounded on the battlefield. Blücher retreats.

30th - Battle of Kulm.

 Battle of Kulm


3rd - Napoleon pursues Blücher

Battle of Dennewitz

6th - Battle of Dennewitz., Marshal Ney is beaten by the Prussians under Bülow.

6th - Battle of Feistritz

17th - Second Battle of Kulm

18th - Battle of the Göhrde

Battle of the Göhrde

23rd - Prussians retreat to the river Spree.

28th - Battle of Altenberg


3rd - Battle of Wartenburg.

Battle of Wartenburg

8th - Bavaria defects and joins the coalition in the Treaty of Ried.

9th - Call in advance of class 1815 (160,000 men).

16th - The Battle of Leipzig begins.

Battle of Leipzig

18th - The Battle of Leipzig ends.  The Württemberg and Saxon Army defects to the Allies.

19th - Retreat of the French army.

30th - Battle of Hanau.

Battle of Hanau


2nd - French army evacuates Frankfurt and crosses back the river Rhine.

3rd - The King of Württemberg joins the Allies.

7th - Napoleon leaves Mainz.

9th - Napoleon arrives at Saint-Cloud.

10th - Battle of Nivelle.

 Battle of Nivelle

12th - The Allies arrive at Dusseldorf

16th - Uprising against the French in Amsterdam.

22nd - The Russians arrive at Amsterdam.

25th - Defection of the Grand Duke of Baden.

30th - The Prince of Orange lands in Holland.

Völkerschlachtdenkmal, Monument to the Battle of Nations


2nd - The Allies cross the river Rhine.

9th - Evacuation of Breda by the French.

10th - The British land in Tuscany.

12th -  The Treaty of Valençay between France and Ferdinand VII recognizes him as King of Spain.

15th - Armistice is signed between Russia and the King of Denmark.

21st - The Allied armies enter Switzerland.

Blucher and the Prussians cross the Rhine.

23rd - The Austrians appear in Alsace.

26th - Twenty-three senators and councilors of state are sent in the military divisions; they act as special commissioners to expedite the conscription and national guards.

29th -  Siege of Danzig ends.

29th - French Legislature, by 223 votes against 51, votes a report of its committees, condemning "the ambitious activity" of the Emperor, asking him to declare that he will continue the war for independence and territorial integrity of France, and begging to keep the laws that guarantee to French a free exercise of their political rights.

30th - Occupation of Geneva by the Austrians.

31st - Napoleon adjourns the Legislature and bans the printing of the report voted on the 29th..